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Anal Cancer: Causes and Symptoms

Anal cancer is a distinct type of cancer that originates from the anal canal, separate from colorectal cancer. Anal cancer is a type of cancer that arises from the flat epithelial cells of the anal skin. However, there can also be malignant tumors of the anus originating from the anal skin, such as lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and melanoma.

Symptoms of Anal Cancer

  1. Abdominal swelling
  2. Changes in bowel habits
  3. Bleeding from the anus
  4. Complaints such as itching in the anus are observed.

Risk Factors

1- HPV

HPV is a DNA virus responsible for anal cancer and cervical cancer. It is responsible for 90% of anal cancer cases. HPV vaccination is important for prevention.

HPV types associated with anal (anal) cancer:

  • HPV type 16 (strong association) – the most common type
  • Also associated with HPV types 18-31-33
  • In HPV-positive males, the risk is 30-80 times higher compared to the general population.

2- Sexual intercourse

  • Contact with numerous individuals
  • Sexual contact through the anus in women or men increases the risk of anal cancer by 7 times, and sexual contact through the anus with numerous individuals increases the risk by 17 times.

3- Smoking

More than 50% of anal cancer cases are known to occur in smokers (increases the risk 2-5 times).

4- HIV infection:

5- Conditions related to the anus, such as hemorrhoids and anal fistula, are associated with a VERY LOW likelihood of susceptibility to anal cancer.

6- Anal condyloma

7- Immunosuppression

8- Crohn’s disease

Treatment Methods for Anal Cancer

  • Surgery
  • RT (Radiotherapy): Radiation therapy

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