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Anal Fissure: What is it, and How Does it Occur?

Anal fissure disease, referred to as anal crack in our language, is the second most common anal disorder after hemorrhoids. An anal fissure is defined as a tear or open wound that develops on the inner surface of the rectum near the anus. It often occurs in conjunction with constipation and straining. We can treat it through both surgical and non-surgical methods, depending entirely on the condition of the fissure. In the continuation of our article, we will provide a detailed explanation of the causes, symptoms, reasons, and treatment methods for anal fissures.

Anal Fissure: What is it?

In medical terminology, the condition known as anal fissure is referred to as “makat çatlağı” in our language. When this disorder occurs in the anal region, it is often felt as a sharp pain resembling a glass cut. It can result from chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, anal intercourse, pregnancy and childbirth, or infections that can be transmitted sexually.

Causes of Anal Fissure

As mentioned in the paragraph above, there can be various reasons for the formation of fissures. However, constipation is the most common cause. Chronic diarrhea, anal intercourse, and normal childbirth often follow constipation. Rarely, sexually transmitted infections, diseases such as Crohn’s disease, tuberculosis, and syphilis can also be causes.

Symptoms of Anal Fissure

  • Sharp and intense pain during bowel movements
  • Pain and discomfort persisting for a while after bowel movements
  • Small amounts of bright-colored bleeding around the stool or on toilet paper during bowel movements.

Don’t Hesitate to Consult a Doctor for Anal Fissure

If you suspect that you are dealing with anal fissure (which is applicable to all anal disorders), it is essential to consult a doctor. Do not let the embarrassment associated with the affected area prevent you from seeking medical attention. Remember that doctors are professionals dedicated to addressing and treating health problems. No doctor will belittle you because of your condition. A proctology specialist will focus on treating your disease and will not concern themselves with any unrelated matters. In many cases, anal fissures can be treated with medication when they first occur. However, due to embarrassment and hesitation, people may delay seeking medical help, leading to the condition becoming chronic, and in such cases, medication may not be effective. Every moment you delay seeing a doctor, you not only expose yourself to more discomfort but also contribute to the progression of the disease.

How is Anal Fissure Diagnosed?

After listening to your complaints, your doctor may conduct various examinations to ensure and make a definitive diagnosis. Fissures are often diagnosed through visual and finger examinations.

Are There Different Types of Anal Fissures? What are They?

As mentioned in various parts of our article, anal fissures come in two types: acute and chronic. Acute fissures, usually a small tear that can be healed with ointments recommended by a doctor, might resolve if treated early. However, if the hesitation to consult a doctor and the belief that it will heal on its own persist, it may become chronic, requiring surgical intervention.

What is Acute Anal Fissure, and How Does it Heal?

The acute period refers to the initial 10-15 days when the anal fissure first occurs. In the first 15 days, an acute anal fissure is often superficial and appears as a small tear. Symptoms during the acute phase are short-lived, felt during bowel movements and quickly subsiding afterward. During this period, changing dietary habits, resolving constipation, and using ointments recommended by a doctor can help heal the fissure without surgical intervention.

What is Chronic Anal Fissure, and How Does it Heal?

Chronic fissures emerge when there is no intervention during the acute phase, leading to progression. Fissures at this stage are larger, and the pain felt during or after bowel movements is more intense and sharp. In other words, the symptoms of the fissure increase proportionally with the size of the tear and the time elapsed since its initial occurrence. Healing chronic fissures is not possible without surgical treatments. Depending on the situation, chronic fissures can be treated surgically or non-surgically.

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